The Risk of Hostile Vehicle Attacks on Melbourne’s Major Sporting Events.

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Melbourne is recognised as the ‘Sporting Capital’ of Australia. its reputation is that of a sports mad population. Major events such as the AFL Final series, the Spring Racing Carnival and the Australian Tennis Open draw huge crowds of up to and over 100,000 people per day regularly. Add to these events such as the International Rugby, State of Origin Rugby League, Boxing Day Test Cricket, Day/night and Big Bash Cricket, there are continual events over Spring and Summer attracting huge crowds. With the pre-event parades included, such as the Grand Final Parade and Melbourne Cup Parade, and there are staggering numbers of people ‘on the streets’ connected with major Sporting Events.

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Sporting Events have previously been targeted in both Europe and the USA by militant terrorist groups. Both al Queda’s propaganda publication – Inspire, and the IS online magazine ‘Rumiyah’ suggest and recommend attacks on major sporting events.

The al Queda publication’s call to action (released four years ago) called for bombing attacks against targets such as the US Tennis Open, the UK FA Cup, the English Premiere League and the League Cup in France.

In a more sinister move, more recently the Islamic State’s magazine ‘Rumiyah’ called for Truck and Knife attacks on events where crowds gather.

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Quite simply, Australian sporting events represent very soft targets. In Europe, these events are heavily guarded by armed police and security forces. Heavily armed police with exposed ‘carried’ automatic weapons in substantial numbers protect such events. Obviously this is based on both previous assaults and recent intelligence.

As of August 2017 over 600 people world-wide had been killed or injured by vehicle rammings. It is time to recognise Australia is not immune.

For anyone who has attended a major Sporting Event in Melbourne, the vulnerability is obvious. At Caulfield Racecourse on Cup Day there are roadside crowds of up to 2-3000 people prior to the gates opening. At the MCG the roadway around the ground and entrances hold up to 10,000 people just prior to major games. The Australian Tennis Open Tournament regularly sees similar crowds roadside prior to major matches.

There are police in attendance and there are concrete bollards and water filled barriers in place. But the reality is that these will provide little protection in the event of a concerted, well planned vehicle attack.

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Water filled barriers and concrete bollards are easily pushed aside. Police are armed with sidearm weapons. There needs to be a far stronger and more practical barrier to such types of attack.

The Meridian Defence Group’s Archer 1200 Crash Barrier system is designed for precisely this purpose. The unit has been thoroughly tested to the most rigorous safety standards in both Europe and in North America. A vehicle of 1.5 tonne will be completely stopped by this unit when travelling at a speed of 50km/h. The units are portable, requiring either one or two persons to deploy and demount. The Archer 1200 has been successfully used in fields of war (Kandahar Airport in Afghanistan) and around fuel depots and refineries in the US.

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Here it has been successfully deployed at venues such as the South Melbourne Market (The Mussels and Jazz Festival) and at Anzac Day ceremonies this year.

For further information on the Meridian Barriers please click here

For a free no-obligation consultation and quotation please call 9326 2244 and speak with M/s Emerald Forrest, AML Risk Management’s Hostile Vehicle Mitigation Systems Co-ordinator or her associate M/s Irene Rentifis.

The Meridian Defence Group’s Crash Barrier Systems are available exclusively through AML Risk Management here in Australia.

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Ensure your next major sporting event provides real protection for patrons attending. Create a genuine hard perimeter that is planned, prevents vehicle intrusions and protects all venue participants.

AML Risk Management – Planning, Prevention and Protection

Hostile Vehicle Mitigation is a must for all street Festivals in Melbourne

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Each year in Melbourne – in fact all capital cities in Australia – Street Festivals are held in inner city locations attracting very large crowds. Melbourne plays host to an abundance of festivals varying from religious celebrations and street parties to Gay Pride marches. Such events attract crowds in their thousands, and require security measures to ensure the event attendees are safe from vehicle access by dangerous vehicles.

Events and Festivals of this stature often use pedestrian malls or similar locations to present stall holders with food, produce and other interesting goods. The streets are closed off but not necessarily effectively. A determined person in a vehicle can easily gain access in many cases.

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Permanent electric retractable bollards and other fixtures alike may have proven to be a solution for vehicle mitigation needs, but how do we rationalise the purchase and installation of such equipment for short-term annual events and street festivals? It simply can’t be done. Temporary solutions such as water-filled barriers and concrete blocks are available, but remain unadaptable in the event of an emergency or changing conditions. With upwards of 10,000 people filling these events, there is a requirement for a more practical portable barrier.

With its rapid deployment and removal, and adaptable configurations, Meridians Archer 1200 Barrier System is the solution we’ve been waiting for. Further information can be found on our website.

 

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Want to know more? Ready to order? Call now on 03 9326 2244 or leave your details here and book a consultation with one of our experienced Safety and Security consultants.

cropped-profile-pic.pngAML Risk Management and Meridian Vehicle Mitigation – together. Planning means Real prevention and Real Protection. AML Risk Management – for effective Hostile Vehicle Mitigation strategies and equipment. The effective solution.

Hostile Vehicle Mitigation. What constitutes a Hostile Vehicle?

 

meridian-crash-barriers-3The answer is simple. Any vehicle being driven in such a way to cause death or injury to others – deliberately – can be deemed a hostile vehicle.

Where Hostile Vehicle Mitigation strategies come into play are in the areas where large groups of people gather – pedestrian malls, events, protests, seasonal shopping crowds.

Hostile Vehicle Mitigation can be of a permanent nature – bollards, both fixed and hydraulic or temporary – Crash Barrier systems installed prior to events, gatherings and large crowds, removed after such events.

The Meridian Archer 1200 portable Vehicle Mitigation Barriers is one such system. In Australia AML Risk Management deploy this system and ensure crowd safety. This year the system has been used effectively at the South Melbourne Market Mussel and Jazz Festival which blocked off Cecil St between Coventry St and York St for 2 days on the 10th and 11th of March.

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The units are placed prior to the event and can effectively stop a vehicle of 1.5 tonnes travelling at 48km/h.

The need for such systems was demonstrated last week in Indonesia where Motorcycles and Scooters breached church entrances and Police Station entrances carrying suicide bombers. There was an appalling loss of life.

So certainly there are concerns with regard to ISIS terrorists, in Australia, but this is a much bigger concern in Indonesia where radicals have based themselves for decades.

Here events like Anzac Day Ceremonies have been targeted by radicalised youths but not affected as yet. This year AML positioned the Archer 1200 Portable Vehicle Mitigation systems at Anzac Ceremonies in Victoria as a precaution.

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The real tragedies that have occurred here in Melbourne have all been predicated by mentally disturbed perpetrators. That being said, it is certainly wise to ensure the safety of any public gathering, sports event or street festival with a sensible well devised Hostile Vehicle Mitigation plan.

AML Risk Management are well positioned to provide a full consultancy and implementation of such a program for any interested parties.

Meridian Rapid Defense Group           Anti-Vehicle Barriers

Call now on 03 9326 2244 and book an appointment for further information or leave your details here and one of our operatives can assist you in developing an effective plan to ensure the safety of your event.

Remember with AML Risk Management proper Planning Prevents and Protects.

AML Risk Management – First in Hostile Vehicle Mitigation

Hostile Vehicle Mitigation – Meridian Crash Barriers

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When a requirement arises for Temporary Crash Barriers, the Meridian Crash Barrier systems provide a sensible, efficient, portable mechanism to prevent hostile vehicle intrusions.

The Meridian system has been developed in the USA and used successfully in war-zones such as Afghanistan (Khandahar Airport), Oil and Fuel Refineries, Ports and other locations. It has been tested and confirmed to stop vehicles dead in their tracks travelling at 50km/h.

Here is the final excerpt from the Federal Government’s recommendations on Hostile Vehicle Mitigation – Temporary Barriers. This is precisely when the Meridian system as supplied by AML Risk Management comes into its own.

Re-deployable devices

Re-deployable devices are vehicle security barriers that are kept in storage and can be utilised when there is an increase in the level of threat to a specific location or crowded places generally. These devices are designed solely as protection measures and are generally not customisable.

Meridian Rapid Defense Group           Anti-Vehicle Barriers

There are two significant drawbacks associated with re-deployable HVM devices. The primary disadvantage is the fact that they are intelligence-driven, meaning that they are only effective if the site owner is aware of the threat: they cannot mitigate against a ‘no notice’ attack. A second disadvantage is their utilitarian appearance and consequent inability to respond to the aesthetic requirements of the surrounding environment, although their appearance is less of a concern if they are only operational for short periods of time, as is usually the case.

These drawbacks illustrate the importance of ensuring that permanent fixtures form part of a HVM strategy.

Rapid vehicle deployment barrier

  • Temporary installation
  • No assembly tools required
  • Set up in less than 10 minutes
  • As with permanent barriers, re-deployable barriers should be treated and rated against a recognised standard to resist the impact of the threat vehicle.

Portable barrier-in-a-box

  • Impact tested: 7.5 tonne at 48km/h
  • Temporary or permanent installation
  • Set up in 7 minutes
  • As this barrier is installed to bollards, the distance between them and their impact rating should meet the manufacturer’s specifications

Rapid deployable surface mount

  • Impact tested: 7.5 tonne at 48km/h
  • Short to mid-term installation
  • Deployed at a rate of 1 bollard every 5 minutes

Re-deployable road safety barriers

Road safety barriers such as concrete, steel and plastic water filled jersey barriers are designed to deflect vehicles from leaving the roadway or trafficable lane. These barriers are generally surface mounted and suitable for use as re-deployable traffic calming devices.

Caution must be taken not to use jersey barriers outside of their design specifications.

Improvised vehicle barriers

Vehicles have and continue to be used as improvised vehicle barriers around the world. This type of barrier is an attractive option due to its portability to close accessible gaps on roadways or paths that could be exploited by hostile vehicle attack, or to act as a gate to regulate authorised vehicle entry into a protected zone.

If using vehicles to form part of a barrier system, a comprehensive vehicle dynamics assessment must be conducted to determine suitability. The assessment must consider the size, weight and placement of the barrier vehicle relative to the size, weight and speed of the foreseeable threat (attack vehicle).

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2.02 Every Metre Counts

Achieving a factor of safety

Where possible, barring vehicular access entirely – thus automatically removing threats to the site – is preferable to more elaborate vehicle management designs. This option can also have added operational benefits and reduced risk of accidents or misuse.

In selecting this method, however, consideration should be given to routine and emergency servicing requirements of the asset, as well as surrounding traffic and transport imperatives. The exclusion of traffic from a wide area may increase traffic volumes and congestion in the surrounding local transport network, thus creating a need for wider traffic management plans.

It is important to design barrier systems, both permanent and temporary that clearly define vehicle and pedestrian spaces. Street furniture in accordance with international standards can be used as mitigation, however they should be supplemented with additional traffic calming measures.

Permanent and temporary barrier systems that are not supported with these additional measures as depicted in the photograph(s) only serve to increase the risk to pedestrians in or on the barriers in the event of a vehicle impact.

With all surface mounted barriers, your assessment must also include the predicted penetration distance the barrier and attack vehicle will travel post impact. This distance will inform the factor of safety that is required (space between the barrier line and crowds).

2.03 Vehicle Approaches and Traffic Management Options

Impact angle is measured between the direction of travel of the vehicle and the impact location (between 0-90 degrees).

Owners and operators should consider a variety of traffic management options, including different forms of vehicle approaches.

Even a small reduction in the velocity of a hostile vehicle will have a significant decrease in the amount of energy that vehicle is carrying, thus reducing its impact and permitting less intrusive HVM devices, which may reduce costs.

High speed = high impact = catastrophic result.

A small decrease in speed = a large decrease in energy = reduced impact = less intrusive barriers and possible reduced cost.

There are a variety of traffic management options to help reduce vehicle speed.

Most severe – Head on impact

This impact mode is usually the most severe. The vehicle is fully engaged and the resultant momentum generated by the mass and speed of the vehicle is directed towards the point of impact.

Less severe – Angled impact

This impact mode is less severe than a head-on approach. The angle typically leads to speed loss by redirection of the vehicle.

Least severe – ‘In-turn’ impact

This mode is the least severe.

Lateral acceleration forces inhibit the capability of a vehicle to maintain or increase speed during a turn in.

Longitudinal deflections

Horizontal deflections, such as bends or chicanes, are often employed in urban or residential areas to encourage drivers to slow down. Drivers reduce vehicle speed in order to maintain ride comfort while making the required direction change; this, in turn, results in improved road user safety.

Longitudinal deflections can also be used to limit the maximum speed of a vehicle operated by a determined driver.

Well-designed temporary chicanes can help to slow vehicles in the lead up to a special event area.

Remember: always use barriers within their design specification.

Vertical deflections

Vertical deflections such as road humps, speed cushions and rumble strips are often employed as a visual deterrent and to disrupt ride comfort, encouraging road users to reduce speed. These,
however, typically provide negligible deterrent or speed reduction against a determined hostile vehicle attack.

Inclines

Gradient will affect the ability of a hostile vehicle to maintain speed or accelerate toward an asset, especially for larger, heavier vehicles. Steep inclines may also be used to restrict the line of sight along a potential attack route, thus introducing an element of uncertainty to the attacker.

Use of inclines will require a large amount of physical space so may not be an option unless there is natural incline available in the surrounding topography.

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Conclusion

Smart design

The nature and use of hostile vehicles has evolved in recent years with terrorism and criminal activity, so too has our understanding and response. This evolution is reflected in the design
and implementation of new and innovative physical protective security measures that help prevent and reduce the consequences of an attack.

No longer must we equate effective physical protective security with cold, sterile measures of austerity. Creative innovation is paving the way for seamlessly integrated protection measures that complement and enhance current needs and desires within public and private spaces.

Equally, common sense needs to be applied to the installation of HVM measures by clearly identifying and prioritising the areas that need protection, rather than areas where it is ordinarily
impossible for vehicles to gain access.

It is important not to over-engineer HVM.

Innovative approach = optimised integration By recognising and acknowledging risks during the design stages of a building or public space, it is possible to achieve an optimal, holistic approach to safety through security. This is also the most cost-effective time to implement physical security measures. The MacLeamy Curve below outlines the importance of early considerations.

Where to go next

Not all of the options provided in this document will be applicable or achievable at all sites. A specific and unique site assessment will need to be conducted to establish the most suitable device for each site even if an owner/ operator has multiple similar assets. The surrounding environment will not be the same in each instance and these differences, no matter how subtle, will impact on the nature of the HVM solutions required.

Source: nationalsecurity.gov.au

Call now on 03 9326 2244 or leave your contact details here  for a free, no obligation consultation on providing real protection for your next street event, sporting event or outdoor program.

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#HostileVehicleMitigation

 

Hostile Vehicle Mitigation with AML – Portable Crash Barriers by Meridian do the job.

When events are planned with large crowds in space accessible by vehicles, the thinking behind planning for such events now has to change. In a city where many facilities were designed in times where the population was set at 1–2 million we are now confronted with a wider Greater Melbourne population base of over 5 million, including nearby provincial cities such as Geelong and the Mornington Peninsular. The simple fact is that within such a population base there will be those that are seriously unbalanced or unhinged mentally as has been demonstrated with both the Bourke St rampage and the Flinders St incident.

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It’s time in many instances to provide permanent Hostile Vehicle Mitigation systems to protect areas such as Transport Hubs, Pedestrian Malls and Sporting Facilities.

But in other instances, such as Street Festivals, outdoor markets and peaceful demonstrations, it is now necessary to provide portable units that can be installed quickly, cost effectively and removed upon the event or function finishing.

AML Risk Management now operate and provide the Meridian Crash Barrier systems as a truly effective Hostile Vehicle Mitigation protective management system. For further information on the Meridian Crash Barriers please click here. The systems have been used at the South Melbourne Market in inner Melbourne and will be used on Anzac Day to protect marchers.

The Meridian Crash Barrier system will stop a hostile vehicle completely even up to 50km/h!

The Federal Government has developed a security strategy to prevent such vehicular attacks and we continue our reprints on the working paper created.

Vehicle Security Barriers (VSBs)

VSBs can be passive (static) or active (functioning/ mechanical) in their operation. Active devices are susceptible to mechanical failures and human error/ deception techniques, and require maintenance and ongoing costs; accordingly, passive barriers are preferred when there is no operational requirement to provide vehicle access into an area.

When selecting a barrier the foundation and installation is just as important to consider as the barrier itself. Poorly designed foundations can compromise the performance of a barrier in resisting high-energy hostile vehicle impacts.

Manufacturers offering an impact-tested VSB should also be able to offer a tested and approved foundation design for that product. Other considerations when installing a VSB include:

  • The presence of underground obstructions
  • Ground conditions
  • The perceived calculated impact loading
  • Protection to underground services in close proximity

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Foundation requirements

Passive barriers

There are a great number of options for creating effective passive barriers around an asset. They need not be costly to install and can easily fulfil aesthetic requirements of the space and its patrons, as well as the requirements of HVM.

A balance should be struck between proportionate security measures, the needs of the local businesses and functionality of public space. It is possible to integrate bespoke HVM measures into most public realm features.

Urban elements that can be used include:

  • Landscape features (e.g. sculpted or clad earthworks, steep verges)
  • Shrouded bollards (i.e. designed to match local architecture)
  • Decorative, structural or energy absorbing planters (i.e. more aesthetically acceptable)
  • Strengthened ‘light’ structures (e.g. bus or smoking shelter, information sign)
  • Large immovable landmarks (e.g. statues, walls)
  • Integrated street furniture (e.g. lighting column, traffic signal, seating, cycle rack)
  • Level changes (e.g. steps, high kerbs)
  • Water features (e.g. fountain, pond or pool)

Defining vehicle and pedestrian spaces

Designing and protecting pedestrian-only areas around assets is essential not only to protect pedestrians who would ordinarily use the space, but has the added benefit of restricting vehicle access to the buildings, creating standoff and natural barriers.

The best way to protect pedestrians is to create clearly defined pathways separate from vehicles. This can be achieved through the use of barriers along the edge of footpaths or by integrating walkways into new developments that limit vehicle accessibility but maintain easy access for pedestrians ensuring their safety. Designs like these may also help reduce the opportunity for accidental collisions between pedestrians and cars, which are quite common in carparks.

There are various designs that can help to define and reinforce pedestrian areas but should not be relied upon as the sole source of protection. These can include:

  • Raised footpath
  • Cobbles near gutter
  • Lights on the ground (car parks)
  • Verge; and
  • Medium strip

Stairs will stop most but not all vehicles and can be used to add a level of protection to high-pedestrian areas or gathering points. Their main use is in mitigating out of control vehicles, or slowing down determined vehicles; they may also act as a visual deterrent (target hardening). However, they should not be solely relied upon to protect critical infrastructure, since some vehicles (short wheel base and high front end) can easily mount stairs.

The images to the left show Civic Pavilion precinct in Sydney which incorporates a combination of stairs, a sculptured garden structure, and bollards to separate the pedestrian space from vehicles.

Access for emergency and maintenance vehicles into the space is managed through the use of removable bollards.

The venue provides a good example of how effective but subtle vehicle mitigation options can be integrated into the design, establishing a pedestrian environment safe from the risk of hostile vehicles.

Separating vehicle and pedestrian spaces can be achieved by strategically placing vehicle security barriers to define those spaces. Installing metal bollards on the edge of the roadway, in the image below, provides protection for pedestrians against a vehicle attack.

The large pedestrian space between the building and roadway creates additional stand-off distance that significantly reduces the building’s vulnerability to a vehicle-borne improvised explosive device (VBIED).

The option of seating as a mitigation device at this location would not be appropriate, since the absence of a raised gutter between the roadway and pedestrian pavement increases the risk of injury to pedestrians in the event of a vehicle impact.

In designing pedestrian only spaces, consideration must be given to the volume of people (including wheelchairs and prams) movement in and out of a venue, together with access to the space by emergency and maintenance vehicles. This coupled with a comprehensive vehicle dynamics assessment should influence the shape and style of appropriate vehicle security barriers.

Hostile vehicle guidelines for crowded places

Semi structural

Hostile vehicle guidelines for crowded places

Sculpture and street

Hostile vehicle guidelines for crowded places

Riverside upgrade: sculptured feature

Hostile vehicle guidelines for crowded places

Riverside upgrade: sculptured feature

Hostile vehicle guidelines for crowded places

Water feature

Hostile vehicle guidelines for crowded places

Suitable space for passive barriers

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Steps on a pedestrian street

Hostile vehicle guidelines for crowded places

Remember

  • For effective barrier placement the maximum clearance between two barriers should be no wider than 1200mm
  • The barriers should also have a minimum height of 500mm

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There may be naturally formed barriers located around a site that could be used as part of a secure perimeter. Natural barriers could include rivers, ponds, lakes, densely wooded areas, steep slopes or changes in ground level that will either divert attack or preclude vehicle passage.

Where these features do not naturally occur it may be feasible to engineer them. In these cases, consideration must be given to access and egress paths for pedestrians and general crowd management around the venue or asset.

The recommended solutions are to construct a ditch, bund or combination of the two. Considerations such as cost (and long-term cost benefit), availability of materials/production facilities, ground conditions and architectural advantage will influence the choice of options.

Trees and fences

Trees

The use of individual trees as a VSB is not generally recommended. This is because full-scale impact testing of trees has indicated that trees do not necessarily perform well against a determined hostile vehicle impact.

Where an existing tree cannot be moved and forms part of the physical perimeter, a number of factors should be considered:

  • Tree health
  • Stability of local ground conditions around the tree roots
  • Trimming of branches to remove climbing aids (e.g. over a perimeter fence); and
  • Lines of sight for guard-forces and CCTV surveillance.

Where areas of bush, forest or other densely packed trees are present to form a natural barrier, the combined resistance will likely be more effective against determined vehicular impact. In this instance, any gaps between trees may only require lower grade infill HVM measures to prevent a slow speed encroachment attack.

Fences

Most conventional fences are not a viable option for a HVM measure; they are easily breached by vehicles at low speeds and should only be used where vehicle speed is restricted by terrain or
approach. Fences are better suited to assist perimeter monitoring by installing perimeter intruder detection systems (PIDS) like motion sensors on the fences.

Active barriers

If vehicle access to the asset is required, then active barriers can be used to identify and monitor vehicles allowed past the standoff perimeter.

Use of an active VSB is required for control of vehicle access. The term “active” refers to the system’s ability to operate from closed (secure) to open, and could take a number of forms, such as:

  • Retractable bollard;
  • Retractable blocker; and
  • Folding, sliding, swinging, rising-arm gate.

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Retractable bollard

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Retractable bollard and rising-arm gate

An active VSB can be manually operated by a person or powered (e.g. hydraulic power source). A VSB should be selected not only on the basis of performance or operational requirements, but also
cost. Careful consideration should be made by the consultant and purchaser as to the full cost of a VSB, especially post-installation costs and long-term requirements such as:

  • Training;
  • Service requirements;
  • Maintenance and repairs;
  • Spare parts;
  • Environment e.g. salt corrosion;
  • Positioning of controls e.g. ensure they are secure; and not accessible by the public;
  • Drainage issues.

If an active VSB is required then a well-designed vehicle access control point should ensure that guards are not put under undue pressure or distracted by traffic management requirements that
might prevent their being able to carry out security procedures safely and securely.

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Vehicle access control point

The ideal VACP deploys two rows of VSB at the end of a VSB enforced chicane. One row at the start and another at the end of a VSB enforced chicane as per diagram. This creates a contained secure zone that a vehicle cannot enter or leave until authorised by the guard forces or an automatic access control system. This type of VACP uses up a lot of land space and is expensive to install and maintain; thus, while ideal, this type of VACP is only suitable to certain areas.

Imperative to control points are rejection lanes, search bays or parking facilities that have not been illustrated in this diagram.

Standards for vehicle security barriers

International Standards Organisation (ISO), International Workshop Agreement (IWA) 14-1 & 14-2. 2013.

Part 1 relates to the performance requirement, impact test method and performance rating.

IWA 14 -2 :2013

Part 2 relates to the application of vehicle security barriers.

The selection and installation of vehicle security barriers must include consideration of relevant legislation and general crowd management. For example; public access and safety, accessibility for wheelchairs and prams.

Source: nationalsecurity.gov.au

AML Risk Management can provide both the planning, expertise and installation of the Meridian Crash Barrier system as is required, as well as timely removal upon completion of any event.

Remember AML Risk Management for Planning, Prevention and Protection. It’s the right choice.

Bollards provide a Crash Barrier

Crash barriers take on many forms. Here in 2014, pre London Bridge, Nice and Berlin the team from Fifth Gear test purpose built engineered Bollards. These are designed to be permanent fixtures in risk prone precincts.

AML utilises crash barriers from Meridian to provide similar protection wherever large crowds gather for one off events or promotions.

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There are many systems available and over the next few weeks we will post some videos showing just how to stop a rampaging vehicle.

Call us at AML Risk Management now on 03 9326 2244 or leave your details here for further information

AML Risk Management – Preparation, Protection, Prevention